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Il voit tous les Musulmans, et non leur religion, comme une menace.


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De comprendre. We need compassion and deliberation in our approach to immigration. Life has become so exhausting and the situation is never changing. There will be everlasting longing within us to remain drained and drowsy with all the busy schedule. Keeping our desks filled with shiny stuff that projects our personality has become the only way we want others to learn us. We are so willing to define ourselves by faking our nature regardless of how fragile and calm we are from the inside. All the things we Yet neither the promising quotation from Baudelaire about the Galerie Espagnole—"it increased the general volume of ideas you had to have about painting"—nor the chronological lag between the closing of the Spanish Gallery and the significantly later production of nearly all the French modernist paintings was explored.

More disappointing was the organizers' surface treatment of the principal visual especially technical consequences that this taste for Spanish painting is said to have had on nineteenth-century French art. A singular opportunity was missed here to sensitize, educate, and challenge visitors to greater visual perception and thus historical analysis, in front of the sources of influence as well as their modernist and more conservative nineteenth-century interpretations.

This was the rare exhibition, with such a high caliber of loans, that could have supported a serious investigation of "influence," the way it worked in the nineteenth century, and how certain artists, like Manet and Degas, transformed traditional references to the old masters.

Instead, visitors got the same comparisons between the same artists published years ago, without any significant contributions. Francis in Meditation ca. However, they did not offer any possible significance for the change, and the public might just have assumed that Manet was trying not to copy exactly. Also, the head of St. Manet's canvas, on the other hand, did not convey religious expression to his contemporaries.

Moreover, the brushwork of the two artists is visibly different. Too often, one read catch phrases on the wall panels like "masterful brushwork" to link a French modernist with a Spanish old master, without further analysis. The former is a modernist approach that begins to divorce the signifier brushstroke from the signified form , while the Spaniard's technique here followed conventional figurative painting practice.

Moreover, not all loose or "masterful" brushwork is the same, even among the Spanish old masters. Consider the blue cloak of the principal figure in Ribera's St. Sebastian Tended by the Devout Women c. This loose or rough brushwork helps to model the saint's figure, without challenging its legibility or the narrative, as it would in a modernist canvas. Ribera's facture is unlike that of Manet or of Ribot whose Torture of Alonso Cano is seen as influenced by Ribera's painting , but might be compared to Degas's scratchy brushwork. And the wall panel cited Charles Blanc's description of the St.

Sebastian , "the skin is so realistically rendered that it seems palpable," without further explanation, a common problem with any reference to "realism" capitalized or not : once the term is used, it shuts down further discourse, for it is assumed to be transparent, to mean the same thing to everyone. The division here had to do with value judgments: the artists in the seventh gallery are generally considered less original, more academic, or second rate.

In the same room, Goya's extraordinary Black Paintings were mentioned as having been exhibited in Paris at the Universal Exposition, but those darkly fantastic paintings seem more likely to have affected the emergent symbolists than the brushwork of the impressionists. Only Las Meninas would have made sense here, and this fabulous painting the Prado will not lend. The eighth, spacious gallery was devoted to the works of American painters.

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Only Mary Cassatt's pictures were split between two rooms: In the Loge formerly known as Woman in Black at the Opera , —78; Museum of Fine Arts, Boston was hung with works by Degas and Manet, but it looked out of place near the Spanish old masters as her early Spanish genre paintings did next to Whistler's full-length portraits in the American room.

The reasoning behind the inclusion of American artists in a show about French taste is that the American artists who studied in France also absorbed the French taste for seventeenth-century Spanish art. None of the American responses to Spanish art and culture that existed prior to —Washington Irving's writings or the hosting of Spanish paintings at the Pennsylvania Academy of Art—are discussed, as though no American perspective existed.

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In view of such diverse works by artists of distinct training, aims, and means of expression as Whistler and Eakins, the visitor might have left the exhibition wondering whether every artist working or studying in nineteenth-century France was "influenced" by Spanish Golden Age painting. A small side gallery with computer terminals to access the exhibition website also displayed Manet's prints related to Spanish themes. The discontinuity with the artist's other works made this room seem like an afterthought, and, like the Goya room, its graphic emphasis diverged from the organizers' argument that Spanish seventeenth-century painting had a catalyzing effect on modernist painting, especially its technique.

Despite these criticisms, visitors who attended the show surely reveled in the superb quality of the art on view, and for those unfamiliar with the scholarly literature, the exhibition adequately surveyed a large, complex topic. Specialists, however, found that it neither advanced their understanding of the factors driving this aesthetic taste, nor did it fully exploit the visual potential and intellectual challenge of comparing pictures by such different painters and cultures.


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In fact, the Metropolitan produced a considerably longer English-language version, which is the one this review will consider. Over pages long and lavishly illustrated, this catalogue will likely serve as the standard English-language publication on the nineteenth-century French interest in Spanish painting. The abundant good quality reproductions, frequently juxtaposed as comparisons, convey many of the authors' points and make this book a useful visual resource.

The authors include established American, French, English, and Spanish scholars who published some of the first serious studies on the nineteenth-century French interest in Spanish painting, along with newer contributors to the topic. Nevertheless, the catalogue shares the same conceptual problems as the exhibition, and raises a number of broad and specific issues that I will address in relation to individual essays and the publication as a whole.

Barbara Weinberg explains midway through the catalogue why American paintings were added to the New York venue, where the catalogue included two additional essays and nearly thirty entries on American art She reasons that, as many American artists between the Civil War and World War I studied in France and absorbed French styles, their art necessarily reflected the French taste for Spanish painting. If one accepts this logic, why didn't the project include paintings by other foreign artists who studied in France? If it were an attempt at relevance for an American public, it has the opposite effect of rendering the American paintings as a shadow contribution, divorced from an American context.

How is it that. The author sees a direct relationship between increasing acquisitions of Spanish painting with its influence on nineteenth-century French art making, but how that taste was transformed into visual influence remains to be explored. One avenue might be to investigate possible relationships between art collectors, critics, and artists. In this useful essay, Tinterow details, augments, and corrects earlier studies of the collecting of Spanish painting in France, and fills a gap in the accessible, English-language scholarship.

The culminating point of Tinterow's argument, as it was for the exhibition, is the Galerie Espagnole, more than paintings acquired in Spain by agents of the King Louis-Philippe that were exhibited together in the Louvre from The Spanish Gallery was the largest, most accessible collection of Spanish paintings known in nineteenth-century France.

Tinterow calls it "a monumental compensatory act,"—for the sale of his family's art collection, for the restitution of Napoleon's art "booty" to the European countries from which they were pillaged, and for Louis-Philippe's ascent to power via revolution—which is as close as any of the authors comes to acknowledging non-aesthetic factors in the collecting of Spanish art Tinterow ends his investigation of collecting and exhibiting Spanish art in France with the closing of the Spanish Gallery in ; after that time, he asserts that artists were more likely to go to Spain to see Spanish painting The author then abruptly veers off to discuss the impact of Spanish painting on a few French modernist artists, namely, Courbet, Manet, and Degas.

Despite the opening sentence of the second essay, "The Discovery of the Spanish School in France," "It is hardly surprising that political events played a decisive role in spreading the influence of Spanish painting or that, in due course, the results of this dissemination surfaced in the works of nineteenth-century French artists. Although her opinion that "museums have proven to be the best places for artists to study the great works of the past", might seem self evident to readers today, art museums were relatively new institutions then, following centuries of artists having cited or modified earlier works of art.

Lacambre, however, does not explore or support this claim by historical and visual evidence In the course of detailing these paintings, Lacambre acknowledges that many were wrongly attributed to Spanish artists, while other works now known to be by Spanish painters were also misidentified to non-Spanish painters. Yet, Lacambre does not address how these facts and historical opinions affect her argument. One of Lacambre's intriguing points is that public art museums destroyed the original contexts of the art works they possessed, and thereby forced connoisseurs and visitors to focus more on aesthetic and technical qualities than on subject matter Yet, her own investigation into the increasing number of paintings in the Paris Salons representing scenes from Spanish artists' lives seems to contradict this statement For example, Murillo's Virgin of the Rosary ca.

This information provides a useful warning to all who might believe certain forms of naturalism to be universally or timelessly legible. Such scenarios allowed French artists to reproduce a masterpiece without simply copying it, while they also drew attention to their profession and creative process in an accessible, biographical manner. Unlike Tinterow, Lacambre credits books with informing and inspiring French artists in their emulation of Spanish painting after , when the Galerie Espagnole ceased to exist The third essay, "Seville's Artistic Heritage during the French Occupation," by Ignacio Cano Rivero, presents a clear, organized recounting of the Spanish or believed to be Spanish paintings that were taken from Seville to France during the French occupation of that city between January and August Clearly, Spanish critics and historians had already evaluated and appreciated their native school of painting in Seville.

Why Cano Rivero expresses surprise at Quilliet's and others' use of such Spanish books to acquire paintings is baffling: where else would Frenchmen get their information and ideas on Spanish art in the early s? Yes, this is French taste, but formed in good part by Spanish scholarship. Cano Rivero gives full attention to Murillo's developing reputation, mostly outside Spain, as closely linked to that of Seville, and he convincingly proposes several causes underlying the evident gaps in French knowledge and reception of Spanish painting, especially Murillo, during this time.

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Some clarification is needed with regard to his claim that the decree of was the first Spanish attempt "prohibiting the removal of paintings from Spain" In , the young Real Academia de Bellas Artes de San Fernando in Madrid tried to accomplish this, and the decree prohibited only the exportation of works by deceased , famous , Spanish artists. The scholarly literature has generally seen Joseph Bonaparte's decree to create an art museum in Madrid as the origin for the Prado, founded in by Ferdinand VII, but here one learns that as early as the s, when Anton Raphael Mengs was called to Spain by Carlos III, the painter proposed that an art gallery be formed in the new royal palace with the best works from the king's various residences Other intriguing facts could be amplified: for example, the authors state that the early display of paintings in the Madrid museum was arranged according to spatial and decorative needs, rather than by artist, school, date, or style, and lacked labels Was this common practice in European museums?

Further study of the Italian-born curator Luis Eusebi might shed additional light on the privileged installation given to the Italian, rather than Spanish school Juliet Wilson-Bareau tells the reader that her essay, "Goya and France," is the prelude to her later article on Manet and Spain, and so they will be reviewed together. This author has published extensively on Goya and Manet since the s, and the information and ideas she presents here have appeared previously.

Sometimes the continuity between all this information is broken; for example, Goya's art is described as having been inspired by Poussin, David, and Paret.

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Then, the author shifts to a long section on Goya's printmaking and its influence on Romantic French artists. Indeed, Goya's prints seem to have been the major vehicle through which earlier nineteenth-century French artists and critics knew his art, but this point clearly refutes the catalogue's title and argument, which specifies the influence of Spanish painting, particularly, its technique. Her exploration of Goya's reception stops around mid-century, except as it relates to Manet in her second essay. Several points concerning Goya merit further investigation.

First, it would be useful to plumb Goya's statement that he did not want the copper plates of Los Caprichos to go to foreigners, who he recognized were already eager to acquire them Second, the exhibition of Goya's " Black Paintings "murals from his country house, at the Exposition Universelle in Paris, appeared a few years before the public manifestation of Symbolism in literature and painting.

While Goya's disturbing paintings have been mentioned elsewhere as sources for Odilon Redon's dark, melancholic, and fantastical prints one series' title cites Goya , perhaps other Parisian artists were struck by the parallels between their current situation and Goya's Spain, both of which had recently undergone political revolution, foreign invasion, and civil war.

What is missing in both essays is sustained visual analysis and comparisons that support general claims and interpretations.