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People used to fear this one more than they do today, when our motto seems to be that no publicity is really bad publicity and unseemly revelations are the order of the day. Still, this is a significant fear, and one that even recent books revisit in original ways. The fear of shipwrecks can seem archaic — but they were the airplane crashes of yesteryear. Shipwrecks can be mere episodes or the core of the plot; in early literature, they are closely allied with war, a more global disaster. While other disasters arouse fear — earthquakes, volcanos — war and shipwrecks lead the field. Fear of the law is a surprisingly classic fear, weighing in at number nine.
While this might seem the most trivial of fears, in fact it drives a lot of great literature. Some characters want life to be elevated, inflated, like epic or romantic literature. Deprived of that illusion, they die or take their own lives—looping us back to fear 1. A story of fear In , off the coast of Chile, 20 American sailors watch their whaleship, the Essex, fill with seawater.
It had been struck by a sperm whale. They took to their small boats, with limited equipment and little food and water. This story, from Stove by a Whale, the narrative of Owen [ … ].
Packing up for your holiday trip home? My viral load is undetectable and I feel good. Now, as an HIV educator and public speaker, I encourage others to get in care and on treatment as soon as possible. But after getting clean in rehab, I found hope and have been on HIV treatment ever since. My HIV diagnosis was a shock, but I found a strong support group that helped me find my way. They introduced me to the perfect clinic where I have one doctor who specializes in HIV and one who specializes in caring for transgender women and men.
Everybody is very friendly — from the front desk to the doctors — and they make me feel safe and comfortable.
Moderne geldpolitische Zwangsläufigkeiten by Robert Dugger - Project Syndicate
My message to other transwomen living with HIV is to find friends and providers who will support and uplift you, take your meds, maintain a healthy lifestyle, and keep doing the things you love. I refuse to let HIV get in the way of my busy schedule. I even have a cell phone app that reminds me to take my HIV meds.
I take control by taking my HIV medication every day. Skip directly to search Skip directly to A to Z list Skip directly to navigation Skip directly to page options Skip directly to site content. Enter ZIP code or city. Anonymous Feedback. Syndicated Content. Slide Sets. Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir. To be sure, the Emperor had powers exceeding those of the head of state in most Western democracies, and the general staff of the Prussian army continued to be dominated by conservative aristocrats.
Yet the decisions made by the Emperor and his advisers, albeit fateful in the year , mostly had a very limited impact on the day-to-day lives of ordinary Germans. The detractors of bourgeois modernism long set the tone for professional history-writing, too. For almost half a century, the overwhelming majority of historians portrayed the German middle classes as losers in a power struggle, in which feudal elites and heavy industry joined forces against the threats of socialism and organized labour.
The weakness and splintering of the liberal parties in the German national parliament has been seen as indicative of a structural weakness of the German bourgeoisie, compared to their analogues in other Western countries. A seminal study of bourgeois reform activism of the Wilhelmine period is Introduction 3 symptomatic of their political capitulation before the old elites.
Yet their work has since become the object of a new historical revisionism. Some of these studies are devoted to what we may call the social history of Wilhelmine politics.
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Yet it now seems that for contemporaries, this chronological compression served to dramatize, not dilute, the experience of modernity. Dramatic economic and social transformations went hand in hand with the development of a distinctly modern consciousness, which is here referred to as modernism. Wilhelmine Germany became the site for a series of modernist experiments, both cultural and political, which shaped notions of the modern in ways which, if less spectacular than those of the inter-war years, were at least as profound. As Repp has suggested, not only Weimar pp.
Another exciting new intellectual history of this period, which challenges the classical opposition between irrationalism and modernism in German culture through an innovative study of social practices of cultural consumption, is Corinna Treitel, A Science for the Soul: Occultism and the Genesis of the German Modern, Baltimore and London, It also seeks to convey a more richly textured and historically precise understanding of modernism itself.
Another excellent overview of the debate that pays particular attention to the French and German contributions to the debate is Wolfgang Welsch, ed. The label refers to classical modernism in its most radical, uncompromising and triumphalist mode. The common understanding of the home as nucleus of the nation is recast for the age of consumerism so that proper use of material goods forms the basis of familial and national well-being. Both focused on the importance of transforming and modernizing the culture of the home through the reform of domestic objects, and both insisted on the national parameters of this project.
On traditionalist modernism, Vittorio M.
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Lampugnani, ed. Introduction 7 German exports. This programme was not targeted at heavy industry: consumer goods, manufactured with traditional German solidity yet the latest technologies, were to usher in a new golden age. In promoting this aim, the Werkbund was not alone: many organizations sprang up that sought to improve consumer taste in order to create a market for such quality work.
Moreover, the Werkbund also had powerful political backers. See also W. Fischer, ed. Jahrhundert, Munich, ; and K. Indeed, some new work seems barely touched by the demolition of the Sonderweg.
For Matthew Jefferies, Wilhelmine Germany produced a reformist culture which deserves to be studied very much in its own right, rather than as a half-baked version of later modernisms. A full survey of the specialist literature dealing with this oeuvre is beyond the scope of this introduction. On the problem of alienation and capitalism, compare also the more orthodox Marxist analysis of Junghanns, Der Deutsche Werkbund.
Yet like Schwartz, he postulates a fundamental incompatibility between individual artistic creativity and the collectivist logic of modernism. Before developing this critique, however, a few methodological remarks are required.
- (Faculty of Economics and Business, University of Leipzig).
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In moving beyond general theories of modernity and its pitfalls, many historians have looked to written texts by bourgeois reformers active in the Werkbund in order to reconstruct their ideological intentions. Yet it has also entailed the danger of equating rhetoric with reality. With no aspirations to literary originality or theoretical sophistication, authors such as Muthesius invariably relied on a conventional political rhetoric of the day, in which it is easy to identify traces of irrational, Nietzschean nationalism.
In doing so, it not only recognized the genius of an individual: it threw its weight behind the institution of the Werkbund. Introduction 11 uncovers a causal connection between the success of German modernism and Prussian political ambitions, challenging the traditional view of pre-war Prussia as a bulwark of cultural traditionalism and reactionary politics. What was true for government was also true for German industrialists, who proved important backers of modernism. The appointment of Peter Behrens as artistic director of the AEG electricity works was the most dramatic, but by no means an isolated example of major German corporations trying to cash in on the cultural prestige of the Werkbund.
Functionalism soon became an extremely value-laden term, summarizing everything that postmodernists later attacked in the kind of faceless, global modernism that is usually traced back to the Bauhaus. As this study will argue, in the bourgeois milieu of the early twentieth century, functionalism meant anything but technical reductionism and abstraction. Emotional and moral categories, such as comfort, sobriety, and tradition and rootedness, were central to this—and many of these were conceived in a spirit of classical idealism so central to the German education system at the time.
In this way, appropriateness could be the precise antithesis of the common view of Bauhaus-style modernism as universal, technical and emptied of all emotion or sense of place and time. Rogge, eds. And it shows why contemporary writing about material culture should not be detached from a close analysis of the material culture itself.